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Oracle 常用命令  

2011-02-26 15:26:15|  分类: DataBase |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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第一章:日志管理

    1.forcing log switches

    sql> alter system switch logfile;

    2.forcing checkpoints

    sql> alter system checkpoint;

    3.adding online redo log groups

    sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]

    sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;

    4.adding online redo log members

    sql> alter database add logfile member

    sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,

    sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;

    5.changes the name of the online redo logfile

    sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'

    sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

    6.drop online redo log groups

    sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;

    7.drop online redo log members

    sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

    8.clearing online redo log files

    sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';

    9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles

    a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '

    b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:\oracle\oradb\log');

    c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo01.log',

    sql> dbms_logmnr.new);

    d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:\oracle\oradata\oradb\redo02.log',

    sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);

    e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:\oracle\oradb\log\oradb.ora');

    f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters

    sql> v$logmnr_logs);

    g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr; 

    第二章:表空间管理

    1.create tablespaces

    sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\file1.dbf' size 100m,

    sql> 'c:\oracle\oradata\file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]

    sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)

    sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]

    2.locally managed tablespace

    sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\user_data01.dbf'

    sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

    3.temporary tablespace

    sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:\oracle\oradata\temp01.dbf'

    sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

    4.change the storage setting

    sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;

    sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);

    5.taking tablespace offline or online

    sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;

    sql> alter tablespace app_data online;

    6.read_only tablespace

    sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;

    7.droping tablespace

    sql> drop tablespace app_data incl ing contents;

    8.enableing automatic extension of data files

    sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data01.dbf'size 200m

    sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;

    9.change the size fo data files man lly

    sql> alter database datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'resize 200m;

    10.Moving data files: alter tablespace

    sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

    sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf';

    11.moving data files:alter database

    sql> alter database rename file 'c:\oracle\oradata\app_data.dbf'

    sql> to 'c:\oracle\app_data.dbf'; 

第三章:表

    1.create a table

    sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)

    sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]

    sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

    sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)

    sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]

    2.copy an existing table

    sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as s qry

    3.create temporary table

    sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;

    on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows

    4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size

    pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)

    5.change storage and block utilization parameter

    sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k

    sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);

    6.man lly allocating extents

    sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');

    7.move tablespace

    sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;

    8.deallocate of unused space

    sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]

    9.truncate a table

    sql> truncate table table_name;

    10.drop a table

    sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];

    11.drop a column

    sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;

    alter table table_name drop columns contin;

    12.mark a column as unused

    sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;

    alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;

    alter table orders drop columns contin checkpoint 1000

    data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

    第四章:索引

    1.creating function-based indexes

    sql> create index summit.item_q ntity on summit.item(q ntity-q ntity_shipped);

    2.create a B-tree index

    sql> create [uniq] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace

    sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

    sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0

    sql> maxextents 50);

    3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows

    4.creating reverse key indexes

    sql> create uniq index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k

    sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

    5.create bitmap index

    sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k

    sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

    6.change storage parameter of index

    sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);

    7.allocating index space

    sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');

    8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused; 

    第五章:约束

    1.define constraints as immediate or deferred

    sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;

    set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;

    2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints

    sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name incl ing contents cascade constraints

    3. define constraints while create a table

    sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable

    sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);

    primary key/uniq/references table(column)/check

    4.enable constraints

    sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;

    5.enable constraints

    sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id; 

    第六章:LOAD数据

    1.loading data using direct_load insert

    sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging

    sql> select * from emp_old;

    2.parallel direct-load insert

    sql> alter session enable parallel dml;

    sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging

    sql> select * from emp_old;

    3.using sql*loader

    sql> sqlldr scott/tiger \

    sql> control = ulcase6.ctl \

    sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=tr

    第七章:reorganizing data

    1.using expoty

    $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:\emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y

    2.using import

    $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y

    3.transporting a tablespace

    sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;

    $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts

    triggers=n constraints=n

    $copy datafile

    $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2

    /sles02.dbf)

    sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;

    4.checking transport set

    sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>tr);

    在表transport_set_violations 中查看

    sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为tr 是, 表示自包含

第八章: managing password security and resources

    1.controlling account lock and password

    sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;

    2.user_provided password function

    sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),

    old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean

    3.create a profile : password setting

    sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3

    sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30

    sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function

    sql> password_grace_time 5;

    4.altering a profile

    sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3

    sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;

    5.drop a profile

    sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];

    6.create a profile : resource limit

    sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2

    sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;

    7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost

    dba_Users,dba_profiles

    8. enable resource limits

    sql> alter system set resource_limit=tr;

    第九章:Managing users

    1.create a user: database authentication

    sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users

    sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire

    sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];

    2.change user quota on tablespace

    sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;

    3.drop a user

    sql> drop user juncky [cascade];

    4. monitor user

    view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas

    第十章:managing privileges

    1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs

    2.grant system privilege

    sql> grant create session,create table to managers;

    sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;

    with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;

    3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:

    sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,

    alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database

    alter database archivelog,restricted session

    sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until

    4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users

    5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =tr restriction access to view or tables in other schema

    6.revoke system privilege

    sql> revoke create table from karen;

    sql> revoke create session from scott;

    7.grant object privilege

    sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to p lic;

    sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;

    8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs

    9.revoke object privilege

    sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];

    10.a it record view :=> sys.a $

    11. protecting the a it trail

    sql> a it delete on sys.a $ by access;

    12.statement a iting

    sql> a it user;

    13.privilege a iting

    sql> a it select any table by summit by access;

    14.schema object a iting

    sql> a it lock on summit.employee by access whenever s?ssful;

    15.view a it option : view=> all_def_a it_opts,dba_stmt_a it_opts,dba_priv_a it_opts,
dba_obj_a it_opts

    16.view a it result: view=> dba_a it_trail,dba_a it_exists,dba_a it_object,
dba_a it_session,dba_a it_statement

    第十一章: manager role

    1.create roles

    sql> create role sales_clerk;

    sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;

    sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;

    2.modify role

    sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;

    sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;

    sql> alter role hr_manager not identified;

    3.assigning roles

    sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;

    sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;

    sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;

    4.establish default role

    sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;

    sql> alter user scott default role all;

    sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;

    sql> alter user scott default role none;

    5.enable and disable roles

    sql> set role hr_clerk;

    sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;

    sql> set role all except sales_clerk;

    sql> set role none;

    6.remove role from user

    sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;

    sql> revoke hr_manager from p lic;

    7.remove role

    sql> drop role hr_manager;

    8.display role information

    view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,
role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles

    第十二章: BACKUP and RECOVERY

    1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat

    2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size

    3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback

    > v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions

    4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog)

    > shutdown immediate

    > cp files /backup/

    > startup

    5.restore to a different location

    > connect system/manager as sysdba

    > startup mount

    > alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf'to '/disk2/../user.dbf';

    > alter database open;

    6.recover syntax

    --recover a mounted database

    >recover database;

    >recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';

    >alter database recover database;

    --recover an opened database

    >recover tablespace user_data;

    >recover datafile 2;

    >alter database recover datafile 2;

    7.how to apply redo log files automatically

    >set autorecovery on

    >recover automatic datafile 4;

    8.complete recovery:

    --method 1(mounted databae)

    >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf

    >startup mount

    >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf;

    >alter database open;

    --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)

    >copy c:\backup\user.dbf c:\oradata\user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)

    >recover datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' or

    >recover tablespace user_data;

    >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' online or

    >alter tablespace user_data online;

    --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)

    >startup mount

    >alter database datafile 'c:\oradata\user.dbf' offline;

    >alter database open

    >copy c:\backup\user.dbf d:\oradata\user.dbf

    >alter database rename file 'c:\oradata\user.dbf'to 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'

    >recover datafile 'e:\oradata\user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;

    >alter tablespace user_data online;

    --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)

    >alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;

    >alter database create datafile 'd:\oradata\user.dbf'as 'c:\oradata\user.dbf''

    >recover tablespace user_data;

    >alter tablespace user_data online

    5.perform an open database backup

    > alter tablespace user_data begin backup;

    > copy files /backup/

    > alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;

    > alter system switch logfile;

    6.backup a control file

    > alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';

    > alter database backup controlfile to trace;

    7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)

    > shutdown abort

    > cp files

    > startup

    8.recovery of file in backup mode

    >alter database datafile 2 end backup;

    9.clearing redo log file

    >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;

    >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;

    10.redo log recovery

    >alter database add logfile group 3 'c:\oradata\redo03.log'size 1000k;

    >alter database drop logfile group 1;

    >alter database open;

    or >cp c:\oradata\redo02.log' c:\oradata\redo01.log

    >alter database clear logfile 'c:\oradata\log01.log';

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